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At present, there are three main ways to prepare resveratrol: (1) plant extraction; (2) transgenic plant cultivation or microbial fermentation; (3) chemical synthesis.
1 plant extract
Since veratrol is widely present in nature, fresh Polygonum cuspidatum has the highest content, but only 0.157%, and fresh grape skins can contain 0.005%-0.01%. At present, the resveratrol sold in the market is the crude product obtained from Polygonum cuspidatum and grape skin using organic solvent extraction, and then the pure product is separated by macroporous adsorption resin or silica gel column chromatography 59. Resveratrol extracted from natural plants has the following advantages: high purity, low chemical pollution, wide sources of raw materials, etc. However, the use of natural plant extraction methods also faces many problems, such as small production capacity, impact on the ecological environment, high costs, exhaustion of resources, time-consuming and labor-intensive.
2 Transgenic plant cultivation or microbial fermentation
Resveratrol is a kind of plant antitoxin produced when natural plants are in unfavorable environment. It is synthesized by 3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene synthase catalyzed by 4-coumarinyl-CoA and malonyl-Coenzyme Come. In the early days, scientists mainly used ultraviolet irradiation to process plant seedlings and seeds to obtain high-yield plants. Subsequently, the scientists simulated the natural environment and used plant viruses to infect plant cells, thereby selecting mutant plants, establishing a mutant high-yield plant system, and obtaining resveratrol, the secondary metabolite of cell lines. At present, scientists have extracted the plant gene that produces resveratrol. Scientists have implanted this gene into tobacco and tomatoes, which not only enhances the disease resistance of these two plants, but also obtains resveratrol. Of high-yielding plants. Although the cultivation of genetically modified organisms has these advantages, it cannot avoid its own shortcomings—difficulty in extracting the resveratrol gene, uncertain expression process of transgenic plants, and susceptibility to mutation, etc. Some scientists also use microbial fermentation technology to process plants rich in resveratrol, but this method has disadvantages such as difficult production of required biological enzymes, cumbersome and complicated processes, and long cycles.
3 Chemical synthesis
(1) Wittig and Wittig-Homor reaction to synthesize resveratrol;
(2) Perkin reaction to synthesize resveratrol;
(3) Heck reaction to synthesize resveratrol.