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Glutathione is a short 3-amino acid peptide found in almost every cell of the body.Widely distributed in mammals, plants and microbial cells, with detoxification, whitening, anti-aging, immunity and other effects, currently in cosmetics, agriculture, drugs are widely used.
Its working mechanism can be summarized in two aspects.
1. Maintain the balance of redox reaction in vivo:
Firstly, the antioxidant defense system can be maintained by participating in antioxidant reactions.Glutathione is an important antioxidant in the human body. It can scavenge free radicals in the body and clean and purify the environmental pollution in the body.
At the same time, it provides reductive equivalent for various fat-soluble and water-soluble antioxidants.Because GSH has its own unique molecular properties: -SH, γ-.-SH is easy to be oxidized and dehydrogenated, and also participates in a variety of biochemical reactions. Therefore, glutathione can ensure that enzyme proteins are not oxidized, ensuring sufficient energy for cell metabolism.
Finally, Glutathione can regulate other antioxidants.The production of GSH affects the production of vitamin C and vitamin E.Vitamin E destroys free radicals in cell membranes and becomes oxidized vitamin E, and vitamin C regenerates vitamin E.After regeneration, vitamin C becomes dehydroascorbic acid, and GSH changes the dehydroascorbic acid into vitamin C, so vitamin C can also be regenerated by GSH.If GSH is insufficient, can affect the regeneration of vitamin C, if the amount of vitamin C is insufficient, can affect the regeneration of vitamin E, if vitamin E is insufficient, that cell membrane is about to suffer.
2. Regulate the body's immune response:
T cells are important cells in the body's immune system, with antiviral, antibacterial and monitoring functions to kill tumor cells.But too much t-cell activation can also contribute to a variety of immune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and intestinal inflammation.
Glutathione plays an important role in maintaining T cell immunity by promoting T cell activation, proliferation and differentiation.Studies have found that after T cell receptor activates T cells, mitochondria in T cells produce oxidative free radical ROS. Appropriate ROS can stimulate T cell activation and proliferation, and promote metabolic transformation of T cells, so that they can produce and metabolize energy faster to adapt to raw materials needed for rapid cell proliferation.
However, excessive ROS can cause damage to cells, so cells simultaneously begin to produce reducing glutathione to balance the production of oxidative free radical ROS, which is directly regulated by glutathione synthase (GCL).
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