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D-alpha Tocopheryl Acetate Oil Introduction
Tocopherol acetate is used as a raw material for soy oil slipping, and is purified and compounded into various natural vitamin Es by chemical processes such as pretreatment adsorption separation, methylol hydrogenation conversion, acetylation, and distillation refining.
It is a clear, deep amber viscous oil with a mild taste and odour. The active ingredient, vitamin E acetate, is derived from natural sources, i.e. from edible vegetable oils, and is produced by suitable physical and chemical means. It is intended for use as Vitamin E in dietary supplement and food industry. d-alpha tocopheryl acetate, Also named tocopheryl acetate, d alpha tocopherol vitamin e, the d alpha tocopherol widely used as tocopherol in cosmetics.
The active substance is d-α-tocopheryl acetate, also known as RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate, which is an acetate of natural vitamin E and is therefore stable to oxidation. D-alpha-tocopherol is the only alpha-tocopherol stereoisomer in nature with the highest biological capacity of all isoforms of vitamin E.
1. The tocopherol purified product of edible vegetable oil is obtained by acetylation and vacuum steam distillation.
2. It is synthesized from trimethylhydroquinone and isophytol.
1. Take 10 ml of the sample solution prepared in the following "specific optical rotation", add 2 ml of nitric acid under shaking, and heat at about 75 ° C for 15 min. It should be bright red to orange.
2. In the chromatogram of the sample solution described below, the retention time of the main peak (including the solvent peak) is the same as that of the standard solution, and is equivalent to the internal standard solution in the following content analysis.
Vitamin E has antioxidant activity. It can also have anti-atherosclerosis, anti-thrombosis, anti-clotting, neuroprotection, anti-viral, immune regulation, cell membrane stabilization and anti-proliferative effects. Vitamin E is a generic term used to describe eight different forms, the most famous form being alpha-tocopherol. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and an important antioxidant. Its role is to protect cells from free radicals, which can damage the by-products of the body's metabolism. Vitamin E is commonly used in skin creams and lotions because it is believed to play a role in promoting skin healing and reducing scarring after burns and the like. There are three special cases of vitamin E deficiency. In preterm, very low birth weight infants (birth weight less than 1500 grams, or 3.5 pounds), people who are unable to absorb dietary fat are found and are seen in individuals with rare fat metabolism disorders. Vitamin E deficiency is often characterized by neurological problems caused by poor nerve conduction. Symptoms may include infertility, neuromuscular injury, menstrual problems, miscarriage and uterine degradation. Preliminary studies have led to widespread belief that vitamin E may help prevent or delay coronary heart disease. Antioxidants such as vitamin E help prevent the destruction of free radicals, which can lead to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer. It also protects other fat-soluble vitamins (A and B vitamins) from oxygen damage. Low levels of vitamin E are associated with increased incidence of breast and colon cancer.
1. As an antioxidant, vitamin E acts as a peroxy radical scavenger to form a fertility group by reacting with them to form a harmful radical, which is then reduced by a hydrogen donor (such as a vitamin) and thus returned to its reduced state. Because it is fat soluble, it is incorporated into the cell membrane to protect them from oxidative damage;
2. As a modulator of enzyme activity, for example, protein kinase C (PKC) which plays a role in smooth muscle growth can be inhibited by α-tocopherol;
3.Vitamin E also has an effect on gene expression. Cholesterol-rich macrophages are found in atherosclerotic tissues;
4.Vitamin E also plays a role in eye and nerve function as well as inhibiting platelet coagulation.
1. It can promote the absorption of VA and fat, improve the supply of nutrients, enhance the biological characteristics of muscle cells, and promote the absorption and utilization of nutrients.
2. It can effectively delay aging. At the same time, because it promotes nucleic acid metabolism, it can effectively eliminate oxygen free radicals in the body, maintain the vigorous function of various organs, and play a role in delaying aging and prolonging life.
3. It can prevent and treat VE deficiency, which can lead to muscle atrophy, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, infertility and miscarriage.
4. Natural VE has a good effect on menopausal disorders, autonomic disorders and high cholesterol. It can prevent anemia and effectively defend life.
1. Medicines and health products:
In the pharmaceutical industry, it can be used as a raw material for the production of drugs for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cancer, arthritis, delaying brain function delays and other diseases.
In the cosmetics industry, it can delay skin aging, enhance skin elasticity and restore youthful vitality.
3. Food additives and nutrients
In the food industry, it is mainly used as an antioxidant and a nutrient enhancer in oils and fats and as a feed additive to improve the reproductive function of animals and increase fertility.
The clinical drug is a fat-soluble vitamin that is clinically used to treat habitual abortion, threatened abortion, infertility and menopausal disorders.
5. When used as a feed additive, it has anti-pregnancy effects, promotes the growth of animals and the antioxidant effects of animals at rest.
Although all forms of vitamin E have antioxidant activity, it is well known that the antioxidant activity of vitamin E is not sufficient to explain the biological activity of vitamins.
The anti-atherosclerotic activity of vitamin E involves inhibition of oxidation of LDL and accumulation of oxLDL in the arterial wall. It also appears to reduce oxLDL-induced apoptosis in human endothelial cells. Oxidation of LDL is a critical early step in the formation of atherosclerosis because it triggers many events that lead to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. In addition, vitamin E inhibits protein kinase C (PKC) activity. PKC plays a role in smooth muscle cell proliferation, and therefore, inhibition of PKC leads to inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation, which involves atherogenesis.
The antithrombotic and anticoagulant activity of vitamin E involves downregulating the expression of intracellular adhesion molecules (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, which reduces the adhesion of blood components to the endothelium. In addition, vitamin E upregulates the expression of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, thereby enhancing the release of prostacyclin. Prostacyclin is an inhibitor of vasodilation factor and platelet aggregation and platelet release. It is also known that platelet aggregation is mediated by a mechanism involved in the binding of fibrinogen to platelet glycoprotein IIb / IIIa (GPIIb / IIIa) complex. GPIIb / IIIa is the major membrane receptor protein and is the key to platelet aggregation. GPIIb is the α-subunit of the platelet membrane protein. Alpha-tocopherol downregulates GPIIb promoter activity, resulting in decreased expression of GPIIb protein and decreased platelet aggregation. Vitamin E is also found in cultures to reduce plasma production of thrombin, a protein that binds to platelets and induces aggregation. The metabolite of vitamin E, called vitamin E or alpha-tocopherol (TQ), is an effective anticoagulant. This metabolite inhibits vitamin K-dependent carboxylase, which is the main enzyme in the coagulation cascade.
The neuroprotective effects of vitamin E can be explained by its antioxidant effects. Many neurological diseases are caused by oxidative stress. Vitamin E protects against the stress by protecting against the nervous system.
The immunomodulatory effects of vitamin E have been demonstrated in vitro, wherein alpha-tocopherol increases the mitogenic response of T lymphocytes from aged mice. The mechanism by which vitamin E responds to this reaction is unclear, but it is believed that vitamin E itself may have mitogenic activity unrelated to its antioxidant activity.
Finally, the mechanism of action of the antiviral effect of vitamin E (mainly against HIV-1) involves its antioxidant activity. Vitamin E reduces oxidative stress, which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of HIV-1, as well as the pathogenesis of other viral infections. Vitamin E also affects membrane integrity and fluidity, and since HIV-1 is a membrane virus, altering the membrane fluidity of HIV-1 may interfere with its ability to bind to cellular receptor sites, thereby reducing its infectivity.