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Estradiol is a female sex hormone produced by the ovaries, adrenal gland and also the placenta during pregnancy. Estradiol is the most important hormone during a female reproductive years, and is required for reproductive and sexual function as well as having an impact on the health of other organs and tissues.
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■ Female reproductive growth
- In females, estradiol acts primarily as a growth hormone for the reproductive organs.
- Estradiol also enhances growth of the womb’s muscle layer, the myometrium.
■ Show secondary sexual characteristics
- The changes that begin around puberty are driven by estradiol.
■ Keep menstrual cycle normal
- Estradiol is needed to maintain the eggs inside a female's ovaries.
- During the menstrual cycle, induces ovulation.
■ In bone health
- A healthy estradiol is also needed to support adequate bone growth and maintain the health of bones and joints. - Estradiol also has an impact on bone structure and oteopenia and osteoporosis can occur if levels of this hormone are low. (Bone loss can be accelerated in women of post-menopausal age, who may have a relative deficiency in estradiol.)
■ Effects on the brain
Estradiol function is also produced in the brain and estrogens have been shown to have neuroprotective effects.
■ Effects on blood flow
Estrogens can exert effects on the vasculature and have been shown to improve blood flow in the coronary arteries.
■ In medical field:
- Estrogen drugs for functional bleeding of the uterus, primary amenorrhea, menopausal syndrome, prostate cancer.
- It can promote the development of breast ductal hyperplasia, but at higher doses, it can inhibit the release of prolactin in the anterior pituitary, reduce milk secretion, and can also be used return to the milk.
■ Side effect: However, there may be nausea, vomiting and excessive proliferation of the endometrium. Patients with liver and kidney dysfunction should be used with caution and should be avoided on the breast, vulva and vaginal mucosa.
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