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How are NAD+ and NADH difference?
Nov 17, 2021

NAD+ or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is a coenzyme found in every living cell. But sometimes it is colloquially called NAD (no plus sign), even though it has a small plus sign after it. However, the plus sign is important because the term NAD is used to collectively refer to different forms of NAD: the molecules NAD+ and NADH.

How are NAD+ and NADH difference?

NAD can exist in two forms: NAD + and NADH. These two forms of NAD are called "redox pairs", and the term is used to describe the reduced form (the "red" in redox) and the oxidized form (the "ox" in redox) of the same atom or molecule. However, the term "oxidation" can be misleading because it does not necessarily require oxygen. Redox reactions involve the gain or loss of electrons. If something is oxidized, it will lose electrons. At the same time, if something is reduced, it is gaining electrons.


NAD+ and NADH are almost the same thing (with some subtle differences), just like two sides of the same coin. However, the number of NAD+ and NADH are not equal. Scientists have not yet determined what the optimal ratio is, let alone the consequences of interference. As NAD+ has been pushed into the scientific community in recent years, this has become increasingly important.

NAD + is necessary for the occurrence of basic biological processes, but because the level of NAD + will decline with age, the human body has a limited supply. Secondly, NAD+ is a key requirement for the function of Sirtuins. Sirtuins are a group of proteins involved in key cellular processes, including supporting healthy metabolism and cell energy production. If the sirtuins can't access NAD+, they will not function properly.

However, some scientists believe that the availability of NAD + is not necessarily problematic, but rather the ratio of NAD + to NADH. This is because the ratio determines the efficiency of the cell's production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the energy currency of the cell.

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