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Turmeric belongs to the ginger family and is one of the commonly used Chinese medicines. The curcumin in turmeric has a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and other pharmacological effects.
1 Anti-tumor effect
1. 1 Inhibit tumor cell invasion and metastasis
Studies have found that on the one hand, curcumin promotes the secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and inhibits the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2); The expression of angiogenic factors [such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VECF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)], so as to achieve the purpose of inhibiting tumor spread.
1.2 Inhibit tumor cell proliferation and differentiation
Curcumin can inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of tumor cells by inhibiting the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), MMP-9, and other proteins, thereby inhibiting tumor growth.
1. 3 Promote self-apoptosis of cancer cells
Curcumin promotes tumor cell apoptosis mainly through the following three aspects: ① The activation of caspase-8 (Caspase-8) leads to the further release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and activates and activates Caspase-9 and Caspase-3, Induce the activity of polyadenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribose polymerase and the apoptosis of tumor cells; ②Curcumin can also reduce the expression of certain oncogenic transcription factors, such as nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB), etc.; ③ Curcumin can regulate the physiological state of most tumor cells, affect angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase activity, and inhibit the expression of anti-chemotherapeutic factors, adhesion molecules, and COX-2.
1.4 Enhance the chemotherapy sensitivity of tumor cells
Chemotherapy is one of the commonly used methods for the treatment of tumors, and its biggest obstacle is its drug resistance, which is related to NF-κB and the obstruction of apoptosis. Curcumin can significantly inhibit the activation of NF-κB induced by anti-cancer drugs, reduce the overexpression of P glycoprotein and apoptosis suppressor gene (Survivin), and reduce the activity of MMP during tumor invasion.
2 Anti-inflammatory effect
2. 1 Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammation, the prevalence rate in adults is 0.8%. The first choice for disease treatment is to reduce pain, prevent joint damage, and prevent complications.
2.2 Acute lung injury induced by endotoxin
Curcumin can effectively alleviate acute lung injury induced by LPS, and its mechanism may be related to down-regulating the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins, thereby reducing the aggregation and activation of neutrophils in lung tissue, and ultimately significantly reducing inflammation in lung tissue.
3 Antioxidant effect
As an antioxidant, curcumin can inhibit metal ion-mediated lipid peroxidation, reduce low-density lipoproteins, and protect cell DNA from damage by lipid peroxides.
4 Other pharmacological effects
4. 1 Antiviral effect
① Curcumin inhibits the function of the virus envelope, reduces the adsorption and penetration of the virus to the cells of the body, and has an inhibitory effect on the virus inside the body, the virus that has been adsorbed on the cell surface and the cell; ② Curcumin can activate the P53 (inhibition) in the body Oncogene) and other channels to enhance the body’s immunity and prevent virus replication.
Curcumin can restore the decreased AKT and p-AKT cells in the hippocampal CA1 region of the APP/PS1 double transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease (AD) model, suggesting that curcumin may regulate AKT and its phosphorylation process. Thereby further regulating the insulin signal transduction pathway of the PI3K/AKT pathway, thus exerting an anti-AD effect. Curcumin treatment can reduce the expression of COX-2 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) mRNA and protein in hippocampal neurons of rats with epilepsy induced by pilocarpine, which may affect arachidonic acid metabolism pathway COX-2 and 5 -Expression of LOX to reduce brain damage in epileptic seizures and play a neuroprotective effect.
4. 3 Anti-fibrosis effect
It can improve liver function and reduce liver fibrosis indexes, reduce Hpy content and liver fibrosis degree, Inhibit the expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA.If you want to know more, please consult firstname.lastname@example.org