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Vitamins are a type of trace organic substances that humans and animals must obtain from food in order to maintain normal physiological functions. They play an important role in the growth, metabolism, and development of the human body. In the body, this kind of substance can neither be a raw material for body tissue nor a source of energy, but a kind of regulating substance, which plays an important role in material metabolism.
From the point of view of chemical structure, various vitamins are very different or even unrelated. Therefore, vitamins are usually classified according to their physical properties. They can be divided into fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamin A, D, E, K, etc.) and water-soluble vitamins ( Such as vitamin C, vitamin B1, B2, B6, B12, pantothenic acid, PP, biotin, folic acid, choline, etc.). Water-soluble vitamins are easily soluble in water but not soluble in organic solvents. They are stored in the body after absorption. Excessive amounts are mostly eliminated in the urine; fat-soluble vitamins are easily soluble in organic solvents but not in water. They can be absorbed by the body with fat and stored in the body, and the excretion rate is not high.
From the perspective of obtaining methods, vitamins can be divided into natural products and chemical synthetic products. Because natural vitamins are limited by raw materials and extraction technology, the yield is low and the price is high, so chemical synthesis takes the lead, accounting for about 80% of the total output of vitamins. Among the various segments of the vitamin industry, vitamin B, vitamin E, vitamin C and vitamin A have the largest market shares, 33%, 30%, 21% and 13% respectively. Other vitamins have a smaller market share, accounting for only 3%.
Introduction Of Vitamin B3
Vitamin B3, also known as vitamin PP, is the collective name for niacinamide and niacin.
Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, nicotine acid, nicotinic acid, Hugo Weidel obtained nicotinic acid in the process of studying nicotine. Later discovered that niacin can treat pellagra (pellagra-prevention), in turn called niacin vitamin PP, also found that a third of human B vitamins, it is also known as vitamin B3.
Nicotinamide, also known as nicotinamide, also belongs to vitamin B3. It is converted from niacin in the body. It is an important component of NAD and NADP. It is responsible for lipid metabolism in the body, oxidation of tissue respiration, and anaerobic decomposition of carbohydrates. Has an important role.
Source of vitamin B3
1. Natural source:
Niacin is mainly found in the internal organs and muscle tissues of animals, as well as trace amounts in fruits and egg yolks;
Niacin is not lacking in general diets. Niacin deficiency is likely to occur in areas where corn is the staple food. The main reason is that niacin in corn is combined and difficult to absorb. It can only be released when treated with pH11 strong alkaline lime water.
Nicotinamide is mainly found in cereal husks, yeast, peanuts, meat, animal organs, milk and green leafy vegetables in nature. Tryptophan can be synthesized in the human body, but the efficiency is extremely low. Escherichia coli in the intestine can synthesize niacin and then convert it into niacinamide.
3.Cyanopyridine (niacinonitrile), hydrolyzed in alkaline solution, and then purified to obtain nicotinamide or acidified to obtain niacin. The reaction is carried out under normal pressure or low pressure, and has the advantages of high yield, high product purity, safe and reliable production, etc., and is suitable for continuous large-scale industrial production.